What We Learn from Baseball Data

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Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Readers of my blog, know that I am a big baseball fan and now-retired player due to a bad-hop broken nose years ago. Golf is generally much safer. If you look back, you can see my blogs about juiced baseballs, Moneyball and baseball in Japan. I also write a lot about safety at chemical plants.  So, here we go again…let’s talk about baseball data and safety.  

This season there has been a lot of talk about foul balls striking and injuring fans and installing netting to protect fans. But, as process engineers, we know that we need to first consider the data before making any decisions. So, let’s get the data and discuss the best way for Major League Baseball to proceed.

Annette Choi and her team recently published, “We Watched 906 Foul Balls To Find Out Where The Most Dangerous Ones Land.”  Their research gathered the following data points:

Column Description
matchup The two teams that played
game_date Date of the most foul-heavy day at each stadium
type_of_hit Fly, grounder, line drive, pop up or batter hits self
exit_velocity Recorded exit velocity of each hit — blank if not provided
predicted_zone The zone we predicted the foul ball would land in by gauging angles
camera_zone The zone that the foul ball landed in, confirmed by footage
used_zone The zone used for analysis

This data collection was no easy feat. The MLB does not keep this type of statistics, even though baseball is really a numbers game. The team watched the 10 most foul-ball-heavy games this season to gather their findings.

Armed with the baseball data, Choi and her team determined the ball parks with the most foul balls:

MOST FOUL-HEAVY DAY
STADIUM AVERAGE NO. OF FOULS PER GAME DATE MATCHUP NO. OF FOULS
Camden Yards* 57 4/20/19 Baltimore Orioles vs. Minnesota Twins 113
PNC Park 57 6/1/19 Pittsburgh Pirates vs. Milwaukee Brewers 111
Oakland Coliseum 53 6/2/19 Oakland A’s vs. Houston Astros 109
T-Mobile Park 53 5/18/19 Seattle Mariners vs. Minnesota Twins 100
Globe Life Park 55 5/3/19 Texas Rangers vs. Toronto Blue Jays 87
Dodger Stadium 51 3/29/19 Los Angeles Dodgers vs. Arizona Diamondbacks 86
Miller Park 55 5/4/19 Milwaukee Brewers vs. New York Mets 85
Citizens Bank Park 53 4/27/19 Philadelphia Phillies vs. Miami Marlins 75
SunTrust Park 53 4/14/19 Atlanta Braves vs. New York Mets 73
Yankee Stadium 51 3/31/19 New York Yankees vs. Baltimore Orioles 67

The team then looked at netted versus non-netted areas as well as the ball velocities.  Interestingly enough, they found that almost an equal number of balls went to each area but the balls with the highest velocities went into the unprotected areas. 

Choi concludes, “Even with extensive netting, no one will ever be completely safe at a baseball game. But there are ways for MLB to protect its fans from foul balls — particularly in the most dangerous areas of the park.”

What I appreciate most is her observations are based in testing and learning about baseball data!

So, enjoy the World Series and root on your team and as Ernie Banks once said “It’s a beautiful day for a ballgame… Let’s play two!”

Troubleshooting Filter Aids and Filtration Systems

 

filter aids
Cellulose filter: Imerys Filtration Minerals Inc.

Filter aid pretreatment can improve filtration properties and efficient removal of fine solids. Whether the filter aids are used in Plate-and-frame filter presses, horizontal and vertical pressure leaf filters, candle or tubular filters, Nutsche filters, or rotary vacuum drum filters, these practical tips can help this part of the process run smoothly.

We typically see diatomite, perlite and cellulose filter aids today. They meet the requirements of a filter aid in that they:

  • Consist of rigid, complex shaped, discrete particles;
  • Form a permeable, stable, incompressible filter cake;
  • Remove fine solids at high flow rates; and
  • Remain chemically inert and insoluble in the process liquid.

You’ll want to test different approaches to determine the best aid for your process and which of the methods — precoat or body feed — offers the greatest benefits. Once you’ve done so, though, it’s important to keep these troubleshooting tips in mind.

Practical Pointers for Using Filter Aids

Whether the process is precoating or body feeding, the filter aid slurry tank and pump are critical to the operation. 

In precoating, the mix tank should be a round, vertical tank with a height twice its diameter. Set the usable volume of the precoat tank at ≈1.25–1.5 times the volume of the filter plus the connecting lines. Use a mixer or agitator with large slow-speed impellers to avoid filter aid degradation and the creation of fines — otherwise you’ll dramatically change the filter aid process filtration.

The precoating pumps almost always are centrifugal pumps because they produce no pulsations to disturb precoat formation and their internal parts usually have hardened surfaces and open impellers to reduce wear. For body feeding, you’ll use positive displacement pumps.

Yet even when the feed tank and pump are correct, several typical issues with filtration/filter-aid systems can arise.

Bleed-through is common where the filter aid is bypassing the filter media. It may stem from mechanical, operational or process causes. Check a couple of mechanical points: 

  • Is the filter medium secured to the filter correctly? 
  • Does the filter medium have a tear or pinholes? 
  • Is the type of filter aid correct for the filter medium mesh size and the particle size distribution of the process solids? 
  • Is the pump working correctly (flow, pressure, etc.)? 
  • Is the proper amount of filter aid being added?

Another issue may be reduced filtration cycles — i.e., the time to reach the maximum pressure drop becomes shorter and shorter. This may occur:

  • if the cake isn’t being discharged completely, then each new batch has residual solids in the filter, resulting in lower capacities. Increasing precoat height or lengthening cake drying time may help improve cake discharge. 
  • if the precoat doesn’t completely cover the filter medium, then the process solids may begin to blind the medium. 
  • if you’re using body feed, inadequate mixing with the process solids may result in filter medium blinding. This also can happen if the velocity in the filter vessel is too low, which will allow the filter aid to settle out before reaching the filter elements. A bypass at the top of the filter vessel can help keep the solids suspended within the vessel.

On filters with vertical elements, precoat pump flowrate or pressure may cause loss of the precoat from the filter medium, Improper valve sequencing creating a sudden change in the pressure or flowrate may also be to blame. Finally, a mechanical issue with the filter may prompt a pulsation or pressure change that impacts the cake structure.

Apply Filter Aids Wisely

Employing filter aids to help filtration is tricky; most process operations try to eliminate or minimize their use. However, sometimes they are unavoidable.

To succeed with filter aids, a process engineer should take three essential steps:

  1. Conduct lab testing to examine the filtration operation (vacuum or pressure), cake thickness, filter aid quantities, filter medium and other parameters that are crucial to the process design;
  2. Ensure correct mechanical design to provide optimum precoat or body feed handling and distribution; and
  3. Arrange for operator training on the filtration technology as well as on filter aid operation.

This blog is an edited version of an article I co-authored with Garrett Bergquist, BHS-Sonthofen Inc. for Chemical Processing.

Summer Workplace Safety & Testing Assumptions

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Image source

Summer is here! That means swimming, barbecues, and watermelon. I’ve got to admit, though, I’ll be looking at watermelons a lot differently this season. 

Recently, I came across a Black & Veatch video illustrating the importance of wearing your hardhat. They did it by demonstrating structural bolt falling from 20 and 30 feet onto a watermelon. 

While physics is not my primary background, I thought it would be interesting to share Rhett Allain’s discussion of the video’s science.

Allain notes he’s skeptical of the video’s claim that the one-pound piece will have an impact force of about 2,000 pounds when it collides after falling 20 feet. He notes “it’s really difficult to calculate the impact force for a couple of reasons”: impact force is typically not constant plus impact force depends on the stopping distance. 

He suggests instead that the falling bolt problem is a “perfect situation in which to use the work-energy principle.” He goes on to discuss the many considerations such as the one pound bolt falling its distance, making contact with the watermelon and still moving some distance, and the backward-pushing force on the bolt. He puts it all together in a work-energy equation:

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Then he considers impact force, and tries to determine why the bolt dropped from 30 feet instead of 20 feet smashes through the watermelon. He notes, “Honestly, I have no idea where they are getting their values for this video. (They probably need a good science consultant.)”

Clearly, in the video, the melon breaks. Its structural integrity is disrupted and it falls apart. It’s a gooey mess, and no one wants to think of the same thing happening to their head.

Allain points out also that a hard hat will increase impact force so that “if the bolt hits the hard hat and stops over a shorter distance, this would produce a higher average force.” Yet he also notes, “the hard hat does do one thing that’s very nice. Since the hat has a rigid surface, it distributes the impact force over a larger area, which reduces the impact pressure. Lower pressure means there is less chance that the bolt will penetrate your head.”

Ah, what a relief! Even if you don’t get the physics.

Key Takeaway

Ultimately, this video and Allain’s discussion had me thinking again about the importance of workplace safety. At the same time, Allain’s questioning the science demonstrated reminds me of my consistent warning against assumptions. We need to always be testing our thinking, whether it’s about filtration technology or busting watermelons. Be safe this summer!

Chemical Engineers & Our Superstitions

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Superstitions surround us: Touching wood? Carrying a rabbit’s foot? Collecting lucky pennies? Not stepping on any cracks? The list goes on and on. 

On one of my many chemical filtration business trips (many people have superstitions making flights safer), I read an interesting article on superstitions in the Wall Street Journal’s (WSJ) Magazine. Six luminaries from different walks of life — photography, acting, cooking, writing, directing and music — weighed in. But, alas, there were no chemical engineers.  So, I thought I’d remedy that in a blog. 

The WSJ article featured various thoughts on superstitions. Some defined superstitions based upon religion and culture passed on from many generations. Another outlined a simple ritual such as “when hearing the title of a Scottish play, one would run outside, turn around three times, then knock on the door to come back inside the theatre.” Then, there were “routines” to keep your days identical (i.e. the same workout, the same coffee, etc.). Others talked about superstitions as an attempt at “having control of what you can control.”

However, the one overriding theme, as photographer Gregory Crewdson stated, is that a belief in superstition “comes down to order” and wanting “to clear your path of unknowns.”  

Clearing the Path for Chemical Engineers

So, how does all that relate to chemical engineering?

If you accept Crewdson’s view, all chemical engineers are superstitious. We are always trying to clear our paths of the unknown. In every chemical filtration process, it is the unknowns that give us the most headaches. Why does the pump keep plugging? Why does the filtration system not produce a clean filtrate? Why is the process not meeting the production rates?  The questions we face are endless! But our job remains the same, we must “clear our paths of the unknown.”

Regular readers will know where I’m going with this…Test! Test! Test! Testing is our way of answering questions in controlled environments. To develop a process or troubleshoot an existing one, we need to ask the correct questions, think critically, walk around the plant, etc.  

Contact me with your superstitions for solving critical filtration and drying applications.  Let’s have fun exploring what we all do in chemical filtration.  

Busyness versus Business and Chemical Engineering Action

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My first blog of 2018 talked about the “speed” of the world and recommended slowing down and reflecting. Well, here’s some free chemical engineering advice as the year draws to a close: It’s important to take the time to review facts and data, analyze decisions, gather inspiration from many sources, and finally proceed with definite actions. Still, you’ll need to be ready to change, as things will come at you at “breakneck speed.”  

In my out-of-the-box way of thinking, I’m going to relate these ideas to the World Cup — Congratulations to France! During the big tournament of the big game in summer 2018, there was a lot of discussion about penalty kicks. 

Bradley Staats discussed them in the Wall Street Journal article “Don’t Simply Dive into Action:  Think.” He looked at various research sources and concluded that “the goalie’s best strategy may be not to move at all.”  At the same time, surveyed goalies have said that they would regret allowing a goal more if they stayed in the center (rather than diving left or right).  This impulse reflects an “action bias.” The idea that doing nothing could be the best strategy for goalies or businesses is seldom discussed.  

Action Bias in Chemical Engineering

chemical engineering advice
Image source

In the world of chemical engineering, when looking at a problem, we are all taught to gather more data, do more testing, investigate more research, get more sources, etc.  And yes, sometimes this is the best strategy when coming across a problem that is new to the plant or to the specific process.  However, there are many different thoughts on this topic from Sherlock Holmes who employs occasional silence and distancing for problem solving to Thomas Watson, longtime CEO of IBM who would tell his salespeople “the trouble with everyone is that we do not think enough…knowledge is the result of thought.”

So, what is the answer?  As we sit at our computers and study the data, we all debate with ourselves whether to take a short walk or brainstorm for 5 minutes.  As the title of the blog states, busyness does not lead to business or to learning.  So, as an engineer, I suggest the brainstorm approach and thinking.  For vendors and sales people too, the tendency is for action.  But, even for sales people, thinking and slowing down to develop the correct approach is critical to success.

My chemical engineering advice is to avoid acting just to show “action.” Instead, take some time to think.  We may have to change Notre Dame Football coach Frank Leahy’s quote to read instead: “when the going gets tough, the tough get thinking.”  Let me know your ideas.

My Thoughts on Filtration Separation Trends and Practices

 

filtration forecasting
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I recently had the opportunity to share my ideas on filtration separation trends and practices with World of Chemicals magazine. My favorite part may have been the headline, “Aging with perfection in filtration technology.” I like to think they were talking about me — ha ha!

filtration forecasting
Image source

In the meantime, I thought I’d excerpt some of the thoughts I shared in that interview.

Talking about global trends in the filtration separation equipment market, I noted, as the world’s population grows, there is a need for cleaner energy, improved water & food and advanced health care….Advances in healthcare and pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals [are also allowing] people to live longer, healthier and more productive lives.

This means, “filtration and separation technology suppliers must continually improve their products to meet these needs. The trends in the filtration market space are two-fold: moving towards continuous filtration (which is more efficient) as well as moving towards finer and finer particle size removal.”

I suspect we’ll see high demand for filtration separation products in “pharmaceuticals with smaller batches, cleanability and multipurpose operations.” Also, “for increased food supply, we see growth in the agrochemical market including fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and insecticides.” Plus, “cleaner water is driving the specialty chemicals for resins and catalysts.”

As chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturers adapt to more multipurpose facilities, filtration and separation equipment must be cleanable and avoid cross-contamination between products. Batch sizes are also smaller, and we demand for finer filtration and separation to 0.5 microns as well as automatic operation for safety, efficiency etc.

Automation trends & more

Automation technology is one of the most important aspects for customers today. It is critical for filtration and separation products for preventative maintenance, efficient operation, mechanical troubleshooting and process analysis. Applying improved automation technology greatly reduces the energy usage and improves accuracy and precision to the overall process.

Automation also provides for optimum operations, time monitoring systems, report generation and recipe management.

We’re also going to have to incorporate R&D to meet market demands. At BHS, we’re working with clients to combine technologies for full turnkey responsibility to minimize lifecycle costs and reduce operating costs. So, overall, we are focused on innovation, automation, continuous processing, cleanability and overall reliability to 99 percent uptime. We strive to provide complete process solutions with spare parts, service and continually to improve the client’s operation.

This requires testing — of course. “Testing provides the collaboration with the client to provide innovative and cost-effective process solutions.”

At the same time, one big challenge in our market is the need for speed. Speed of innovation is impacting our clients who are developing new processes very quickly using micro-reactors, new chemistry, and new products.

The speed at which the filtration and separation suppliers must operate to meet the clients is even faster. Successful companies must fulfill this “speed” objective without sacrificing any core values of safety, efficiency, quality, and service.

4 Key Differences between Filtration and Centrifugation

I’m always looking to collaborate and explore ideas with others in our filtration technology business. Happily, director of Oriental Manufacturers Jigar Patel, has offered this guest blog discussing differences between filtration and liquid solid centrifugation. I hope you enjoy Patel’s perspective:

liquid solid centrifugation
Photo by gemmerich on Foter.com / CC BY-SA

Filtration and centrifugation are two distinct separation techniques used for isolating the required components from the mixture. The major difference between the techniques is the nature of the force employed and the separation method used. While filtration uses a sieve or filter media to strain undesired constituents, centrifugation leverages the power of the centrifugal force for the separation.

What is Filtration?

Filtration is a physical separation technique, by pressure, vacuum or gravity, used for segregating one or more components from a mixture for different applications. Depending on the application, the process may employ one or multiple metal perforated layers or filter mesh for solid-liquid separation. 

What is Centrifugation? 

Centrifugation is a process that employs a centrifugal force to separate the elements of the liquid slurry.  The remaining liquid (supernatant) is then transferred from the centrifuge tube or removed without disturbing the precipitate. The precipitating particles left behind depend on the speed of the machine, the shape and size of the particles and their volume, viscosity, and density.

4 Major Differences between Filtration and Centrifugation

#1 Nature of Operation 

  • Filtration 

Large particles in a mixture are unable to pass through the perforated layers of the filter. Yet fluids and small particles easily pass through the filter mesh under the pressure, vacuum, or gravitational force. 

  • Liquid Solid Centrifugation 

The centrifugal machine forces the heavier solids to the bottom creating a firm cake. The lighter mixture that stays above the cake is then decanted. 

#2 Separation Techniques

  • Filtration 

Filtration uses different techniques depending on the expected outcome which can be classified as pressure, vacuum, or gravitational.

  • Centrifugation 

Centrifugation techniques can be classified as micro-centrifuges, high-speed centrifuges and ultra-centrifugations. Microcentrifuge is typically used for research studies that require the processing of biological molecules in very small volumes. High-speed centrifugal machines are designed to handle bigger batches and are mainly used for processing industrial mixtures on a large scale. The ultra-centrifugation technique is used to study the properties of biological particles.

#3 Function 

  • Filtration 

The main function of filtration is getting the desired output by eliminating impurities from any given liquid or isolating solids from a mixture. 

  • Centrifugation 

The main purpose of centrifugation is fast, efficient separation of solids from a liquid solution or slurry.

#4 Efficiency 

  • Filtration 

Simple filtration techniques take time separating the desired materials, which makes the separation method less efficient. 

  • Centrifugation 

Centrifugation techniques employ machines that run with the aid of power, so the separation method is faster and more efficient. 

Both filtration and centrifugation are solid-liquid separation techniques that use different equipment and have different applications.

My two cents: Deciding which one is best suited to your process will take work. No matter the process in question, engineers are well served by taking the time to gather the information, make their own comparisons, and then develop a process solution.

Thanks to Jigar Patel. The director of Oriental Manufacturers believes in the power of good functional designs and their ability to boost productivity and drive growth. Fueled by his passion for innovation and all things EPC, Jigar writes on topics related to process plant equipments, process machinery production, turnkey solutions, best industry practices, liquid solid centrifugation, and his personal insights!‌

Keep the sharing going — let me know what you want to write about in this spot next!

Juiced up about Baseball Science

baseball science

Those who have followed my blog already know some about my background. For instance, I am an avid baseball fan. But here’s a new fact…I have been playing baseball since I was 5 years old. In fact, when I was 12, I was coached by the famous musical band, The Tokens, whose biggest hit was “The Lion Sleeps Tonight.” Needless to say, this was not a winning team. Success was always just “a win away, a win away…”

 

The Chemistry of Baseballs

With the playoffs and World Series looming, the controversy once again has arisen about the “juiced baseball.” This season the number of home runs per game has increased to 2.54 from 2.03. Hit Tracker Online provides us with all the stats and information on “how far it really went” for MLB games.

But what is really going on? There are many theories:

  • hotter temperatures due to global warming
  • strike zone changes
  • stronger and younger players
  • pitching changes.

If we focus on the data, which is what we do as chemical engineers, there are some other interesting ideas to consider.

One theory is based upon the drag coefficient (air resistance) of the ball, as discussed by Rob Arthur. His hypothesis is that the drag coefficient has decreased to 0.344 from 0.357. While this does not sound like much, it can add over five feet to the ball’s distance. This would be enough to increase the number of home runs by 10 – 15%.

Another theory by Ben Lindbergh and Mitchel Lichtman suggests an “air-ball revolution” meaning that players are swinging differently. Several MLB players have been in the news for focusing on hitting the ball harder in the air, and elevating it off the ground more.

 

Testing Baseball’s Stuff

Chemical & Engineering News also has weighed in on data from Rawlings, which has been the Major League Baseball (MLB) supplier for many years. Matt Davenport’s 26 June 2017 article Materials: What’s That Stuff? states the ball is the same and references the ball’s Coefficient of Restitution (COR) value, which has always been between 0.514 – 0.578. The COR refers to the ability of an object to bounce back to its original height when dropped from a certain height. The recognized standard for COR testing is an ASTM method F-1887.

Thus, why we’re seeing such a run on home runs remains a mystery and will be debated for a long time. My idea…let’s have a hot dog and a beer and share baseball science theories. As Ernie Banks said “It’s a great day for a ball game; let’s play two!”

Relating The Undoing Project to Unfiltered Thinking

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Photo credit: Simon & His Camera via Foter.com / CC BY-NC-ND

This summer I read The Undoing Project, by Michael Lewis. Lewis has also written Liar’s Poker, Moneyball, The Blind Side, and Flash Boys — so maybe you’re familiar with his work. His 2016 book, with the subtitle “A Friendship that Changed Our Minds” introduces us to two Israeli psychologists whose work changed everything from medicine to investing and revealed the weirdness of the human mind. This is also the story of two men with different backgrounds collaborating to create new ideas and new theories.

In the 1970s, Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky changed our understanding of human judgment and decision-making. In 2002, Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics (Tversky would undoubtedly have won as well, if he hadn’t died of cancer several years earlier).

Kahneman and Tversky created the field of behavioral economics and showed how the human mind makes errors in judgement in uncertain situations. Their work led to the use of algorithms and big data gathering rather than relying on human intuition. Lewis’s book offers many examples of how this work is used today:

  • Index funds in the stock market
  • evidence-based medicine rather than “diagnosis from the gut”
  • sports such as basketball and baseball using algorithms to analyze players and draft choices
  • government decisions on tax policy, trade, etc. in the US, Great Britain, Australia, Germany, Scandinavia and others.

Relating Undoing to Unfiltered

While the applications of Kahneman and Tversky’s thinking are very interesting, especially data analysis, the aspect that impacts my filtration chemistry blog readers is that of sample size. According to Lewis, the collaborators concluded that “in the search for scientific truths, [all scientists] were relying far more than they knew on chance…What’s more, because they had so much faith in the power of small samples, they tended to rationalize whatever they found in them.”

This realization, according to many in the field of measurement and statistics, was the duo’s stroke of genius. For example, a study of 40 subjects/topics gave only a 50% chance of accurately reflecting the answer while to have a 90% chance of being correct, the sample would need to be increased to over 130.

In our chemical engineering business, considering an appropriate sample is a critical point whether it’s with filtration testing, reaction chemistry, drying analysis, etc. Thinking about Kahneman and Tversky reminds us we all must remember to keep in mind our biases and get as large as sample as possible.

filtration chemistry

Groundbreaking Study of Filtration Technology

 

filtration and separation technology
Photo credit: Moyan_Brenn via Foter.com / CC BY

This blog has long touted the importance of testing, testing and more testing. It’s probably fortunate I don’t teach filtration and separation technologies — my students would be complaining about all of my quizzes and exams as I applied my mantra literally!

Still, it remains amazing to me that with the critical importance of good information about filter aids, filter media and filtration technologies, that there isn’t one comprehensive approach to filter aid usage, filter media and wrapping all of this into filtration technology selection.

Yes, you can find abundant information about each in the literature and the filtration marketplace. Industry experts and suppliers cover these exhaustively, but their writing is focused inwardly.

For instance, you might learn about specific applications such as:
applied mineral filter aids in beer filtration
separating niter when boiling sap for maple syrup
• filtering wine with diatomaceous earth filter aid (DE)

And reading these, you would not be blamed for longing for a drink or a sweet treat. Here’s one more on filtering liquid chocolate – just to be sure your mouth is watering.

Yet, no matter the manufacturing process in question, its left to the engineers to gather this information, make their own comparisons and then develop a process solution. With so many sources helping the process engineer “find the right machine,” or offering “a high performance solution you can rely on” it’s challenging to make the best choice.

BHS aims to change this in filtration and separation technology. We’re right now undertaking a groundbreaking study to develop a comprehensive approach to the marketplace. Our research and testing is now underway with a completion date of August 2017, but we’d welcome your contributions and ideas!